Maned Wolf Special Adaptations: -Long legs to be able to hunt easier and sport prey from taller heights.  Three-month-old pups begin to accompany their mother while she forages. Often, maned wolves defecate on the nests of leafcutter ants. to mark their hunting paths or the places where they have buried hunted prey. Since its classification as a vulnerable species by the Brazilian government, it has received greater consideration and protection. The maned wolf is an omnivore.  Its closest living relative is the bush dog (genus Speothos), and it has a more distant relationship to other South American canines (the short-eared dog, the crab-eating fox, and the zorros or Lycalopex). The Maned Wolves amazing adaptation helps it look over tall grass to find its prey which would be small animals such as rodents or birds that live there. The maned wolf is a twilight animal, but its activity pattern is more related to the relative humidity and temperature, similar to that observed with the bush dog (Speothos venaticus). It has 76 chromosomes, and therefore cannot interbreed with other canids.  The maned wolf reproduces with difficulty in the wild, with a high rate of infant mortality. Large ears help them to hear as they hunt at night. They only get aggressive when another Wolf is in their terretory. Their name is derived from the presence of long black erectile hairs along the dorsal cervical and thoracic regions. If it didn't have black legs to camouflage in the dark grass then little animals strong enough can bite its legs, and The Evolution of the Maned Wolf. ... Having long ears and long legs are important adaptations for the maned wolf. The maned wolf is both a predator to other animals but prey to humans. Maned wolves live in grasslands and scrub forests of central South America. During that first year, the pups rely on their parents for food. Despite these superstitions, there is no large-scale use of parts of this animal. The species occurs in several protected areas, including the national parks of Caraça and Emas in Brazil. They often consider its preservation to be important, and although these societies associate it with force and ferocity, they do not consider it a dangerous animal. , The maned wolf is the tallest of the wild canids; its long legs are likely an adaptation to the tall grasslands of its native habitat. Grade:10, TaxonomyKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaOrder: CarnivoraFamily: CanidaeGenus: ChrysocyonSpecies: C. Brachyurus. The maned wolf, or Chrysocyon brachyurus, is a member of the canid family, which includes dogs wolves, and foxes. In some regions of Brazil, parts of the animal's body are believed to help cure bronchitis, kidney disease, and even snake bites. The reason part of its adaptation is black legs is possibly to camouflage in the dark grass. Its legs are almost black, and their length enable the wolf to see over the long grass while it runs. They tap the ground with a front foot to flush out the prey and pounce to catch it. Its markings resemble those of foxes, but it is neither a fox nor a wolf. Soler, L. (2013). Genetic studies show that it is neither fox nor true wolf, but a distinct species. Fossils of the maned wolf from the Holocene and the late Pleistocene have been excavated from the Brazilian Highlands. About 21% of hunts are successful. The maned wolf's evolutionary relationship to the other members of the canid family makes it a unique animal. Gestation lasts about 60 days and when the pup is born, its fur is black. The activities of the maned wolf are primarily crepuscular. ExcretionThe Maned Wolf stomach expands to fill with a meat meal from the hunt, and the pH is very low in order to kill bacteria.  The situation of the maned wolf in Bolivia and Paraguay is uncertain. It is known locally as aguará guazú (meaning "large fox" in the Guarani language), or kalak in the Toba Qom language, lobo de crin, lobo de los esteros, or lobo colorado, and lobo-guará in Brazil. Average Weight: 32 to 70kg (70-155 lbs) Average Length: 100 to 180 cm long (3.2-5.9 feet).  The wolf apple is actively sought by the maned wolf, and is consumed throughout the year, unlike other fruits that can only be eaten in abundance during the rainy season. Maned wolf urine releases pyrazines, hexagon-shaped clusters of nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen that create a powerful odor that smells a lot like marijuana smoke. , Pups are born weighing between 340 and 430 grams. A maned wolf has two major adaptations for spotting prey and predators. It is the only species in the genus Chrysocyon (meaning "golden dog"). Despite their awkwardly long-legged appearance, the lanky legs are actually specifically adapted to aid in hunting. Several adults may congregate in the presence of a plentiful food source, for example, a fire-cleared patch of grassland that would leave small vertebrate prey exposed while foraging.  Generally, one estrus occurs per year.  Armadillos are also commonly consumed.  They are breastfed up to 4 months. They begin their lives with black fur, becoming red after ten weeks. Both female and male maned wolves use their urine to communicate, e.g.  The dog has pads up to 3 times larger than the maned wolf's footprint. Habitat: The maned wolf inhabits open forest, savannah, and marshland. Unusual for a wolf, about half of their diet is made up of fruit.  The Spanish naturalist Felix de Azara also used the Guarani name to describe it. Big Ears.  (At the Rotterdam Zoo, this smell once set the police on a hunt for cannabis smokers.  Fossils of Chrysocyon dated from the Late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs were collected in one of Peter Wilheim Lund expeditions to Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais (Brazil). The term Maned wolf, as the Crin Wolf in Spanish, is an allusion to the mane of the nape. Habitat. 2 structural adaptations of a maned wolf are; Their long legs so that they can see above the tall grass, and big ears so they can hear very well for hunting or etc.  Fecal analysis has shown consumption of the giant anteater, bush dog, and collared peccary, but it is not known whether these animals are actively hunted or scavenged. In Argentina it is not considered to be in critical danger, but it is recognized that its populations are declining and are fragmented. Wildlife Safari - Winston, OregonSome lions the next fence over were staring down the maned wolf ... seems the wolf didn't like it much.  The ICMBio list in Brazil that follows the same IUCN criteria considers the wolf to be a vulnerable species. Contrary to popular opinion, Maned wolves are very shy and only attack humans when they feel threatened or afraid. Peak activity occurs between 8am and 10am in the morning and 8pm and 10pm in the night time.  They kill prey by biting on the neck or back, and shaking the prey violently if necessary. Behaviour Maned Wolves can be nocturnal (most active at night) or crepuscular (most active at dawn and dusk) and rest in dense vegetation during the day. It is not a fox, wolf, coyote, dog, or jackal, but a distinct canid, though, based only on morphological similarities, it previously had been placed in the Canis and Vulpes genera.  One study based on DNA evidence showed that the extinct genus Dusicyon, comprising the Falkland Islands wolf and its mainland relative, was the most closely related species to the maned wolf in historical times, and that about seven million years ago it shared a common ancestor with that genus. An average weight for the maned wolf is 20-25kg (44-55lbs) Another distinctive feature is the large ears which can stand up to 17.5cm (7in) tall. Historically, captive maned wolves were fed meat-heavy diets, but that caused them to develop bladder stones. Maned wolves are parasitized by ticks, mainly of the genus Amblyomma, and by flies such as Cochliomyia hominivorax, usually on the ears. The maned wolf is well represented in captivity and has been bred successfully at many zoos, particularly in Argentina, North America (part of a Species Survival Plan) and Europe (part of a European Endangered Species Programme). The wolf also is different because it really isn't related to wolves of fox it is on its own. The maned wolves live at times in pairs, especially during the brooding of the progeny, other times, in a solitary manner. One litter of seven has been recorded. It contributes to the propagation and dissemination of the plants on which it feeds, through excretion. Females can go up to two years without breeding.  Much of the negative view of the maned wolf as a poultry predator stems from European ethnocentrism, where peasants often had problems with wolves and foxes. Guará and aguará originated from tupi-guarani agoa'rá, "by the fuzz". 10), †Dusicyon australis (Falkland Islands wolf), Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox or chilla), Lycalopex culpaeus (culpeo or Andean fox), Lycalopex sechurae (Sechuran fox or Peruvian desert fox), The species was described in 1815 by Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger, initially as Canis brachyurus.  It typically hunts alone, usually between sundown and midnight, rotating its large ears to listen for prey animals in the grass. It once was considered a similar threat to cattle and sheep, although this now is known to be false. The maned wolf.  Its markings resemble those of foxes, but it is neither a fox nor a wolf. Wondrous Facts About the Maned Wolf You Probably Never Knew. 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