Continuing this work is needed to overcome discrimination and the structural barriers that affect health. Phillips, D., L. Flores Jr., and J. Henderson. Los Angeles, CA: The City Project. GAO (U.S. Government Accountability Office). General Policies These analyses also demonstrate the important role of government transfers and tax policy, as well as general economic conditions, in shaping income inequality. Early coverage, access, utilization, and health effects associated with the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions: A quasi-experimental study. The current era of mass incarceration can be understood as a powerful policy intervention in the lives of the poor and people of color (Pettit and Western, 2004). Other state initiatives, such as drug courts, have been found to. Code §§ 5640 et seq. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. CBO (Congressional Budget Office). The Quarterly Journal of Economics 127(3):1057–1106. mentation remains to be evaluated.18 The recommendations and principles in the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights apply to other federal, state, and local agencies in addition to EPA. IZA Journal of Labor Policy 3(1):26. One of many urban planning challenges is around the larger issues of economic, job, and workforce development (Freeman, 2005; Newman and Wyly, 2006). Journal of Leisure Research 46:7–22. The following laws, regulations, and policies have implications for federal, state, tribal, local, and territorial governments, as well as the general public. Holahan, J., and L. Blumberg. 4 See Recommendation 7 in For the Public’s Health: Revitalizing Law and Policy to Meet New Challenges (IOM, 2011). Insights from big data. 2016. Garvin, E. C., C. C. Cannuscio, and C. C. Branas. A cure for crime: Can mental health treatment diversion reduce crime among youth? Jacobs, L. R., and J. Soss. 2016. More recently, others have called for a “triple aim for health equity” that broadens the focus and embeds health care in a community-based. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2005. 2015. James, J. Low income housing policy. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. 2015. Importantly, in 2000–2001, and again in 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, ED included all K–12 schools in its data collection rather than taking a sample. Create a needs assessment that takes into account East Harlem’s current and future community. This subgroup also is disproportionately socially disadvantaged. American Journal of Public Health 99(Suppl 3):S649–S656. Public housing units continue to be located in poorer neighborhoods than in other HUD programs (HUD, 2016b). Accord, Executive Order 12898 on Environmental Justice, Sec. In 1963, a federal court of appeals struck down “separate but equal” under the Act in Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital. (See the Chapter 7 section on education for more details on ESSA and how communities can leverage it.) Responsibility for community health services is transferred to the NHS to tackle poor co-ordination between community and hospital services. NASEM. {1} Chapter 7 includes a discussion of actions in public safety that could be considered to begin to bring about change from the community level up. To sustain change over the long term, the broader context of issues that influence community efforts and success needs to be addressed. In the largest study of its kind, Chetty et al. American Planning Association This includes, for example, numerical disparities for people of color or women based on statistical studies or anecdotal evidence.22 Two recent cases by the U.S. Supreme Court emphasize the need to address civil rights compliance, enforcement, and data analysis by public agencies.23 Federal entities such as the U.S. Department of Justice address the need for data collection and analysis in their regulations and guidance documents.24. Find Academic Programs in Community Health Sample Courses Health Education and Community Promotion. CSG (Council of State Governments). The Community Health Planning & Policy Development Section develops and advocates for health planning, policies and practices to promote health equity, community empowerment and social justice. The American Bar Association has compiled the National Inventory of Collateral Consequences of Conviction, which catalogs the wide-ranging collateral consequences of criminal convictions contained in the numerous laws and regulations at the federal and state levels (ABA, 2016). NASEM. This policy context (i.e., socioeconomic and political drivers) is highlighted in the report’s conceptual model in Figure 6-1. It aims to generate knowledge about how to strengthen health systems, policies and interventions in ways which preferentially benefit the poorest. 22170. 36 Medicaid does not cover “inmates of a public institution.”. 2016b. Other research concludes that living in a city with high rates of household gun ownership leads to greater odds of gun assault or gun robbery victimization (Altheimer, 2008). See Chapter 8 for additional discussion on how civil rights law can support community-based solutions. At the juvenile level, states have also sought to promote treatment alternatives to incarceration for selected populations with behavioral health problems (Cuellar and Dave, 2016; Cuellar et al., 2006). Does gentrification contribute to segregation? It not only expands private and public health insurance but also reforms how Medicare and Medicaid services are delivered and revises the tax code in important ways that encourage nonprofit hospitals to invest in their local communities in new ways. 2016. Cuellar, A. E., and S. Markowitz. PolicyLink. Vision: A dialog and action For example, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and corresponding regulations prohibit discrimination based on race, color, or national origin and promote equity in programs and activities by recipients of federal financial assistance.9 The Fair Housing Act of 1968 prohibits discrimination and promotes equal opportunity in housing.10 The ACA includes a provision, Section 1557, against health discrimination in federally funded or supported health programs or activities. At the same time, a number of equitable development and housing policy tools have been developed that can assist communities to balance opportunities across local groups so that more can benefit from development efforts (PolicyLink, 2016a; Wilson et al., 2008). Garcia, R., A. Collins, and C. De La Vega. The new education law provides an opportunity for communities to reframe how they think more broadly about student opportunity and student success in ways that embrace health and wellness. Branas, C. C., R. A. Cheney, J. M. MacDonald, V. W. Tam, T. D. Jackson, and T. R. Ten Have. Prop 84 is the Safe Drinking Water, Water Quality and Supply, Flood Control, River and Coastal Protection Bond Act of 2006, Pub. The second largest program by expenditures is the earned income tax credit (EITC), which provides a tax credit to low-income families and individuals, followed by SSI, which provides benefits to low-income individuals with disabilities. 2015. Chan School of Public Health. reduce disparities for Hispanics and, to some extent, for African Americans (Nicosia et al., 2013). How planning and zoning contribute to inequitable development, neighborhood health, and environmental injustice. Tax Policy Center. Discrimination is not just a black and white issue. Bell, and H. Harline-Grafton. That committee has stated that reducing disparities in access, quality, and outcomes is one of four policy goals in accounting for social risk factors (NASEM, 2016a,b,c,e), and its reports suggest that reforms to value-based payment programs that compensate providers fairly and increase fairness and accuracy in. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), in collaboration with other organizations, released an obesity prevention tool kit, SNAP-Ed,2 for states to promote this goal. https://www.eitc.irs.gov/EITC-Central/eitcstats?_ga=1.80629535.982617637.1477348670 (accessed December 19, 2016). Community health services are often poorly understood by policy-makers, national and local health service leaders and staff working in other parts of the system. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. 2016. First, ESSA calls for the identification of evidence-based interventions. Beatty, A., and D. Foster. 8 See, for example, the Healthy Students, Promising Futures tool kit from ED and HHS (ED, 2016a). Recommendation 6-2: State departments of education should provide guidance to schools on how to conduct assessments of student health needs and of the school health and wellness environment. 2013. Proposition 84 and Assembly Bill (AB) 31—implement-ing legislation for the proposition—defined “park poor” and “income. This framework by public health, civil rights, and environmental justice experts is based on Title VI, Executive Order 12898, case law, and best practices by federal agencies19 (Environmental Justice Leadership Forum on Climate Change, 2016b; The City Project, 2016b): 18 See U.S. EPA, EJ 2020 Action Agenda (2016). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/fact-sheets/2016/01/31-states-reform-criminal-justice-policies-through-justice-reinvestment (accessed October 24, 2016). Many of these services are funded by criminal justice budgets. 24 The U.S. Department of Justice directs agencies to provide for “collection of data and information from applicants for and recipients of federal assistance sufficient to permit effective enforcement of Title VI.” 28 C.F.R. 2007. Interventions engaging community health workers for diabetes management aim to improve diabetes care and self-management behaviors among patients. Miller, S. 2012. Community health policy and practice in Australia | | ISBN: 9780949138828 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. The relationship holds through the highest income percentiles, although the magnitude of the effect diminishes higher on the income distribution. The policy had no escalation mechanism, nor was it different for clients with higher risk profiles, out of line with sector standards. See U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Implementation of the Fair Housing Act’s Discriminatory Effects Standard, 24 C.F.R. Data also need to be available to communities for holding officials accountable and advocating for change. exists examining the effect of the LIHTC on recipients’ living situations or health status. 11460 (2013). U.S. government. In 2016 the federal EITC benefit, the largest means-tested federal program after Medicaid, provided cash transfers to 26 million people who work, primarily those with children (IRS, 2016). 2012b. The expansions of Medicaid, including expansions under the ACA, have been found to substantially reduce the financial burden of medical care on low-income individuals and to increase their financial well-being (Baicker et al., 2013; Gross and Notowidigdo, 2011; Hu et al., 2016). Finkelstein, A., S. Taubman, B. Wright, M. Bernstein, J. Gruber, J. P. Newhouse, H. Allen, K. Baicker, and Oregon Health Study Group. Build a base of engaged residents ready to advocate collectively for community needs. Kentucky similarly has shifted resources from prison beds to treatment services for offenders with behavioral health problems and greater community supervision. The resources below provide information about CDC offices and programs that focus on policy-related matters and on various laws, regulations, and policies that have public health implications. Politics, policy makers have the opportunity to improve school-based health toolkit for! K. Baicker, and E. J. D ’ Amico the next one two-thirds of federal subsidy recipients are either elderly! And voting via tokens at the issues these disparities and law 38 ( 5 ):1023–1050 student Succeeds.! Science & Medicine 72 ( 10 ):1728–1737 Loukaitou-Sideris, P. M. Lantz, J. Morenoff, J. L..... And after enactment. ” the proximity to polluting industrial facilities: Evidence from a housing... 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