In early 1902 she conducted numerous detailed interviews with Rogers at Standard Oil's headquarters. Some features of this site may not work without it. An office boy working at the Standard Oil headquarters was given the job of destroying records which included evidence that railroads were giving the company advance information about refiner's shipments. [57], Tarbell's research in the backwoods of Kentucky and Illinois uncovered the true story of Lincoln's childhood and youth. [113] The goal of the women's committee was to mobilize the war efforts of American women and the first issue addressed was a developing food crisis. degree in 1883. [97] She also traveled to the countryside to interview farmers living in the wreckage of their former homes. She hoped articles such as "A Paris Press Woman" for the Boston Transcript in 1893 would provide a blueprint for women journalists and writers. [10] Tarbell's schedule for the book was tight—the first installment came out only six weeks after she initially started her work. [120], In addition to serving as the President of the Pen and Brush Club for 30 years beginning in 1913, Tarbell was also a member of the Colony Club and the Cosmopolitan Club. Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), the sole woman who matriculated in 1876 and graduated in Allegheny College’s class of 1880 [see additional note below], was America’s first great woman journalist. "[64] At the same time, however, Tarbell had been fascinated with Lincoln since she was a young girl. Tarbell is … Indeed, she invented a new form of journalism. Franklin, Jr. died of scarlet fever at a young age[8] and Sarah, also afflicted, would remain physically weakened throughout her life. These tenants included young men from Egypt, and among them was Prince Said Toussoum, a cousin of the Egyptian ruler. I hope that my post-pandemic self continues to value these things. [32] Together these [4] ushered in the era of muckraking journalism. Tarbell, who never married, is often considered a feminist by her actions, although she was critical of the women's suffrage movement. She is a former faculty member of the Humanist Institute. [71] She rented an apartment in Greenwich Village which reminded her of France. [92] There, she participated in the group's programs which included teaching immigrant women English, job and homemaking skills. [10][56] Tarbell made use of Hubbard's extensive collection of Napoleon material and memorabilia as well as resources at the Library of Congress and the U.S. State Department. [26], Tarbell returned to Pennsylvania, where she met Theodore L. Flood, editor of The Chautauquan, a teaching supplement for home study courses at Chautauqua, New York. She wrote to and interviewed hundreds of people who knew or had contact with Lincoln. Ida Tarbell - Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944) was an American writer, investigative journalist, biographer and lecturer. In 2000, Tarbell was inducted posthumously into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York. Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944) was an American writer, investigative journalist, biographer and lecturer. Who was the target of a major investigative journalism series written by Ida M. Tarbell for McClure's magazine in the early 1900s?..x. Ida Tarbell was an American journalist best known for her pioneering investigative reporting that led to the breakup of the Standard Oil Company’s monopoly. [4][46][53], Tarbell described McClure as a "will-of-the-wisp". Famous for her exposés of corporate America and for biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Tarbell was added to the National Women's Hall of Fame in 2000. [117] Tarbell also participated in President Warren G. Harding's 1921 Unemployment Conference,[4] the conference suggested by Herbert Hoover to address a recession. [57] Tarbell met with John H. Finley while visiting Knox College where Lincoln famously debated Stephen Douglas in 1858. Though she did not accept his offer, in 1919 she was part of his Industrial Conference and President Harding's 1925 Unemployment Conference. Two of her brothers knew Abraham Lincoln, and her father was forced out of business by John D. Rockefeller's Southern Improvement Company, a predecessor to Standard Oil. [56] While working on the series, Tarbell was introduced to historian and educator Herbert B. Adams of Johns Hopkins University. [57], This series of articles would solidify Tarbell's reputation as a writer, opening up new avenues for her. [93] Tarbell disliked the muckraker label and wrote an article, "Muckraker or Historian," in which she justified her efforts for exposing the oil trust. Ida Tarbell. [43] She learned from French historians how to present evidence in a clear, compelling style. "[35], Tarbell wrote two articles that showcased her conflicting views on the roles of women that would follow her through her life. From 1906 to 1915, Ida Tarbell joined other writers at the American magazine, where she was a writer, editor, and co-owner. Kathleen Brady is also the author of Ida Tarbell: Portrait of a Muckraker. Tarbell continued working as a freelancing journalist and traveling the lecture circuit. – Wikipedia. Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944) was an American writer, investigative journalist, biographer and lecturer. Adams believed in the "objective interpretation of primary sources" which would also become Tarbell's method for writing about her subjects. [56] Tarbell said that her sketch of Napoleon turned her plans "topsy-turvy. [137] Tarbell double-checked the Lincoln articles for accuracy by sending them out to those whose information she had included. Tarbell determined that Roland, who followed her husband's lead, was not the independent thinker she had imagined and was complicit in creating an atmosphere where violence led to the Terror and her own execution. Standard Oil. [55] Tarbell took on the role of the magazine's Paris representative. Oil, she would write in her autobiography, opened “a rich field for tricksters, swindlers, exploiters of vice in every known form.”[12] Tarbell's father first used his trade to build wooden oil storage tanks. Initially, Tarbell worked two weeks at the Meadville, Pennsylvania headquarters and worked two weeks at home. [92] Tarbell and Philips raised money to form the Phillips Publishing Company and to purchase The American Magazine (formerly known as Leslie's Monthly Magazine). "[103], Tarbell collected her essays on women and published them in a book called The Business of Being a Woman. She would visit the Sanitarium numerous times over the next thirty years. This Collection. [115] Among recommendations of Tarbell's committee were protections aimed at the health of women workers including an eight-hour day, six-day work week and no work between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.[116] John D. Rockefeller was also a representative at the Conference. [7] They lived in the western region of Pennsylvania as new oil fields were being developed, utterly changing the regional economy. Tarbell believed that "the Truth and motivations of powerful human beings could be discovered." How a female investigative journalist brought down the world’s greatest tycoon and broke up the Standard Oil monopoly. [92] Tarbell wrote of the work required on a farm: "Things happened: the roof leaked; the grass must be cut if I was to have a comfortable sward to sit on; water in the house was imperative. [141] Tarbell's technique in researching corporations through government documents, lawsuits, and interviews managed to break through a secretive corporation and evasive CEO. Now I was convinced that in the long run the public they were trying to stir would weary of vituperation, that if you were to secure permanent results the mind must be convinced. i think one of her hobbies was to help. She exposed the corruption of big businesses, especially those that violated trust laws. People Nostalgia Your mind, feeding on this fresh material, sees things in a new way". [2], President Theodore Roosevelt gave Tarbell and her peers including Lincoln Steffens and Ray Stannard Baker the label, "muckrakers." [105] Tarbell felt that "the drive for suffrage" was "a misguided war on men". The Supreme Court broke up the trust of the Standard Oil Company because of Ida Tarbell's investigative journalism. [71] John Huston Finley quit his job as president of Knox College and became an editor for McClure's. Tarbell, Ida M. (Ida Minerva), 1857-1944: Abraham Lincoln; an address delivered by Miss Ida Tarbell for the Students' lecture association of the University of Michigan, Friday evening, February the twelfth, 1909, in commemoration of the centennial anniversary of Lincoln's birth. [46], Instead of taking up the editor position at McClure's, Tarbell began writing freelance articles for the magazine. It has been called a "masterpiece of investigative journalism", by historian J. Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944) was an American teacher, author and journalist.She was one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is thought to have pioneered investigative journalism.She is best known for her 1904 book, The History of the Standard Oil Company, which was listed as No. Miles, the commanding general of the United States, when the battleship the USS Maine was blown up in Havana Harbor. [34] Tarbell traveled to the Patent Office in Washington, D.C. and met with the head of the department, R. C. McGill. [120] Amidst speculation that Young was gearing up for a Presidential run, the biography was reviewed as a campaign biography. [55] When her biography of Madame Roland was finished, Tarbell returned home and joined the staff of McClure's for a salary of $3,000 a year. [83][86] Even after the first articles began to appear in McClure’s, Rogers continued to speak with Tarbell, much to her surprise. . [92] She met Jane Addams and stayed at Hull House in 1908. The Napoleon series proved popular and doubled circulation up to over 100,000 on McClure's magazine—quadrupling the readership by the final seventh Napoleon installment. My main research interest has been the American muckraking journalist Ida Tarbell, whose work in the early 1900s exposed the unethical business practices of John D. Rockefeller and led to the breakup of the Standard Oil Co. She was about the most famous woman in America for a while as a result. "[88] It would contribute to the dissolution of Standard Oil as a monopoly and lead to the Clayton Antitrust Act. New York: Clarion Books, 2014. [56] In June of that year, Samuel McClure contacted her in order to commission a biographical series on Napoleon Bonaparte. Tarbell was born in Erie County, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Pennsylvania Republicans. [92] Roosevelt said of the muckrakers, "The man who never does anything else, who never thinks or speaks or writes save of his feats with the muckrake, speedily becomes, not a help to society, not an incitement to good, but one of the most potent forces of evil". [106], Tarbell switched course and embraced suffrage after American women won the right to vote in 1920. [4][5] She was born in the log cabin home of her maternal grandfather, Walter Raleigh McCullough, a Scots-Irish pioneer, and his wife. [143] Tarbell would gather the books, transcripts, and clippings she needed, put them in order and write. She graduated in 1880 with a degree in science, but she didn't work as a teacher or a scientist. [3], The investigative techniques she developed while researching this volume influenced Steve Weinberg, one-time executive director of the non-profit Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc., to base training programs for the NGO and classrooms using her methodology. Fiction editor Violo Roseboro discovered writers such as O. Henry, Jack London, and Willa Cather. Tarbell™ is a non-partisan news publication of To Be Fair, Inc.; an IRS-approved 501(c)3 non-profit organization.. Tarbell’s mission is to provide objective, investigative reporting on hard hitting topics effecting Americans; specifically related to healthcare, the environment, defense, and culture. [8] Rouse survived a few hours, which gave him just enough time to write his will and leave his million-dollar estate to the other settlers to build roads. Phillips became president. Tarbell published the article "Making a Man of Herself" in American magazine in 1912, which infuriated her readers and activists. I had never realized that they were subjects for study... School suddenly became exciting. In other words, she proposed to practice what today is considered investigative reporting, which did not exist in 1900. . Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 – January 6, 1944) was an American teacher, author and journalist.She was one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is thought to have pioneered investigative journalism.She is best known for her 1904 book, The History of the Standard Oil Company, which was listed as No. [142] When conducting and presenting the details about Standard Oil's business practices she wanted to present her materials as historical documentation and narrative. "[23], Tarbell graduated at the head of her high school class in Titusville and went on to study biology at Allegheny College in 1876, where she was the only woman in her class of 41. Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857 - January 6, 1944) was an American author and journalist, known as one of the leading muckrakers. "[94], Tarbell had written for McClure's from 1894 until 1906. She was one of the leading muckrakers of the Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and pioneered investigative journalism. The crusading American journalist Ida Minerva Tarbell (1857-1944) is known as the muckraker who cracked the oil trust. [9], After the Rouseville boom was finished in 1869, the family moved to Titusville, Pennsylvania. [92] After Tarbell bought her farm in 1906, her household expanded to include a number of family members. As the muckraking journalist of McClure's Magazine who helped focus national attention on the trust problem in the first decade of the twentieth century, Ida M. Tarbell is forever linked with the reforming spirit of the Progressive Era. Rockefeller had bought out Rogers and his partner, but then Rogers joined the trust. This type of journalism was branded "muckraking" by President Theodore Roosevelt. [60] Adams also taught at Smith College and was a proponent for women's education. She and her flatmates hosted a language salon where both English and French speakers could come together and practice their non-native language skills. Another hinted that her family had reason to seek revenge on him. The play was a hit even though Ida had turned down the lead role and an offer of $2,500 in salary per week for the twenty-week run. [57] The articles were collected in a book, giving Tarbell a national reputation as a major writer and the leading authority on the slain president. In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson offered Tarbell a government position. She had been in the hospital since December 1943. C $26.88; Buy It Now +C $21.74 shipping; From United States; Customs services and international tracking provided. [86] Rogers, wily and normally guarded in matters related to business and finance, may have been under the impression her work was to be complimentary and was apparently unusually forthcoming. But her relentless investigation, passion for the truth, and innovative code of journalistic ethics wouldn’t just change the country’s businesses — it would revolutionize American journalism forever. 5 in a 1999 list by New York University of the top 100 works of 20th-century American journalism. All those things that are at such a variance with the old work horse she calls herself and to the serious worker she is and is known for pleases me a lot". Ida Tarbell Biography - Duration: 50:22. She continued writing and traveled to Italy where she wrote about the "fearful despot" just rising in power, Benito Mussolini. [6][9][16], Tarbell's father later became an oil producer and refiner in Venango County. The History of the Standard Oil Company (Unexpurgated Edition) (Halcyon Classics) [9] Accidents that occurred in Rouseville impacted Ida Tarbell deeply. [4] Over the years, several other family members also lived on the property, including her niece and nephew, Clara and Tristram Tripper, who lived in a cottage. Rockefeller, set a precedent for using journalism to challenge popular beliefs and becoming the voice of the public. [30][31], Tarbell left school wanting to contribute to society but unsure of how to do it, she became a teacher. On her Connecticut farm, Tarbell worked from a mahogany desk in a sunny library. She was the only woman in her class. [9] Walter became an oilman like his father, while Sarah was an artist. In these, she argued that women's best contribution was with home and family. Born in Pennsylvania in 1857, Tarbell was known as one of the leading muckrakers of the Progressive Era in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Maybe you’ve joined me in finding new hobbies to take up this year or in reaching out to friends you’ve fallen out of contact with to catch up. "[74] Having recently published a series on crime in America and were looking for another big topic to cover, Tarbell and the other editors at McClure's decided to look into the growth of trusts: steel and sugar were both considered[75] before they settled on oil. about Abraham Lincoln by Title; JavaScript is disabled for your browser. She was the second woman to serve as a trustee and would hold the post for more than three decades. She repeatedly turned down requests to become involved in causes like birth control and woman suffrage. That rectitude, while sometimes suggesting inflexibility, drove her instincts for reform, a vital element in her future confrontation with Rockefeller. Allegheny College 3,291 views. Despite the fact that she thought she was the second coming of Ida Tarbell and Martha Gellhorn rolled into one I tolerated her. [143] At home in New York, she sat on a bentwood chair at a partners desk with messy heaps of paper. [44][46] All of this work, along with a tutorship, helped Tarbell as she worked on her first biography, a book on Madame Roland: the leader of an influential salon during the French Revolution. Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc. A Life of Napoleon Bonaparte: with a sketch of Josephine, Empress of the French, New Ideals in Business, An Account of Their Practice and Their Effects upon Men and Profits, The Rising of the Tide; The Story of Sabinsport. Starting in 1902, she wrote a series of articles on Standard Oil. [123], Long past Tarbell's life, she has received praise and accolades for her contribution to journalism and American history. Tarbell was alienated by the more militant aspects of the movement[102] and described it as anti-male. [46], Tarbell had an active social life in Paris. Her doctor did not share his diagnosis with her. Ray Stannard Baker was a leading national journalist whose belief in social reform led to a close personal and professional relationship with Woodrow Wilson. In many ways, Ida Tarbell exemplified the dilemma of many women at the turn of the century. [130][131] Muckrakers like Tarbell and Upton Sinclair, on the other hand, wrote detailed, thoroughly verified, and accurate descriptions of the social issues of their day,[131][132] laying the groundwork for legal changes, ethical standards in journalism, and what is now known as investigative journalism. In Black History Ida B Wells was a leader! Ida Tarbell’s Abraham Lincoln biography series ‘The Life of Abraham Lincoln’, is considered to be one of the most informative pieces written about the slain president. (Its title is that of an Aesop's fable.) Tarbell traveled to Europe and met with S. S. McClure to get his buy-in for the idea. She earned $10,000 for the book, and although she thought her work was courageous, critics described her work as cowardly. Ida Tarbell published her autobiography in 1939, "All in the Day's Work." McClure and Tarbell were restless in their initial publishing forays until McClure discovered Tarbell’s work and hired her. [121] It was speculated that in Tarbell's eyes she may have imagined Mussolini as "finishing the work of the Progressive Era at the small price of a few civil liberties". [101] Tarbell was put off by women such as Mary Livermore and Frances Willard who she said never paid attention to her. Ida Tarbell 1860 I am now three years old! The History of the Standard Oil Company (Unexpurgated Edition) (Halcyon Classics) She referred to "this classification of muckraker, which I did not like. [2][91] Her articles and the book would lead to the passage of the Hepburn Act in 1906 to oversee the railroads, the 1910 Mann-Elkins Act which gave the Interstate Commerce Commission power over oil rates, and the creation of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in 1914. After the war, Tarbell served on President Warren G. Harding's 1921 Unemployment Conference. Ida Tarbell was an accomplished and prominent woman in America between 1870 and 1912. Bà là một trong những muckraker hàng đầu của kỷ nguyên tiến bộ cuối thế kỷ 19 và đầu thế kỷ 20 và là người tiên phong trong báo chí điều tra. [111] Tarbell often served as a go-between with the Men's Council and the Woman's Committee. She was a founding member of the local sorority that became the Mu chapter of the Kappa Alpha Theta sorority in 1876. Daddy decided to pursue a career in the oil region, so he moved us to a shanty along Cherry Run in Rouseville. Oct 23, 2013 - Explore CURNAL's board "Ida Tarbell " on Pinterest. Tarbell's father built a family house at 324 Main Street using lumber and fixtures from the defunct Bonta Hotel in Pithole, Pennsylvania. [24] Tarbell had an interest in evolutionary biology—at her childhood home she spent many hours with a microscope—and said of her interest in science, "The quest for the truth had been born in me... the most essential of man's quests. And what I had not reckoned with came from all the corners of my land: incessant calls—fields calling to be rid of underbrush and weeds and turned to their proper work; a garden spot calling for a chance to show what it could do; apple trees begging to be trimmed and sprayed. They had little interest in balanced findings. Tarbell taught classes in geology, botany, geometry, and trigonometry as well as languages: Greek, Latin, French, and German. The Panic of 1857 hit the Tarbell family hard as banks collapsed and the Tarbells lost their savings. She is most famous for contributing to the dissolution of the Standard Oil company, the biggest monopoly of her time. "[96], Tarbell wrote a series of essential articles at The American Magazine, in which she investigated tariffs and their impact on American businesses and consumers. 1910 Ida Tarbell American Women After civil War Maria Mitchell Mary Livermore. However, this book, Wealth Against Commonwealth, contained factual errors and appeared to be too accusatory in nature to garner popular acclaim. "[55] Others interviewed for the report included Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, and Alexandre Dumas. 50:22. In 1896, she was made a contributing editor. Oil Creek had flooded and inflammable material on the water had ignited and exploded. Originally from Pennsylvania, where her father made his fortune in the oil boom and then lost his business due to Rockefeller's monopoly on oil, Ida Tarbell read widely in her childhood. On the verge of physical collapse, she checked into the Clifton Springs Sanitarium near Rochester, New York in 1896. Ida Tarbell (1857 – 1944) was a biographer and journalist who helped develop the form of journalism known as "muckraking." [9] Tarbell would also sneak into the family worker's bunkhouse to read copies of the Police Gazette—a gruesome tabloid. [9][8] In another incident, three women died in a kitchen explosion. Share Kathleen Brady. With no money, he walked across the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio to return,[7] and supported himself along the way by teaching in rural schools. [85] [5][7] Franklin had to abandon the Iowan house and return to Pennsylvania. Non-Native language skills see the bodies, but she snuck into the room where the women burial... Put together a list of close to 2,000 women coming of Ida Tarbell published her novel. Also traveled to Chicago to investigate their public transportation lead to the dissolution the. 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